Phoenix, Arizona: (circa 1893). Cabinet card. Albumen photograph [16.5 cm x 11 cm] on the Hartwell mount [17.5 cm x 12.5 cm], imprinted on the front “Views in Salt River Valley and Throughout Arizona.” Pencil notation on the verso: “Phoenix Indian School” and “Goldwater”.
Francis “Frank” Hartwell (1852- 1908) was born in Canada and moved to the Arizona Territory in 1881, after serving as a photographic assistant in California. This image was likely taken in 1893 when Hartwell received a contract to produce a series of photographs on behalf of the Arizona World’s Fair Commission for presentation at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
The Phoenix Indian School, known as the Phoenix Indian High School in its later years, was a Bureau of Indian Affairs-operated school in Encanto Village, in the heart of Phoenix. It served lower grades from 1891 to 1935, and then served as a high school thereafter. Once Native Americans were confined to reservations in the 1880s, the federal government embarked on a plan to bring about their disappearance by assimilating the children through education. The school opened in 1891 and closed in 1990 at the orders of the federal government. During its existence, it was the only non-reservation BIA school in Arizona. Item #74702